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Informal healthcare sector and marginalized groups: Repeat visits in rural North India

Richard A. Iles.

PLOS, 2018.


The interrelationship between the public and private sectors, and formal and informal healthcare sectors effects market-level service quality, pricing behaviour and referral networks. However, health utilisation analysis of national survey data from many low and middle income countries is constrained by the lack of disaggregated health provider data. This study is concerned with the pattern of repeat outpatient consultations for a single episode of fever from public and private qualified providers and private unqualified providers.

Cross-sectional survey data from 1173 adult respondents sampled from three districts within India’s most populous state—Uttar Pradesh is analysed. Data was collected during the monsoon season—September to October—in 2012. Regression analysis focuses on the pattern of repeats visits for a single episode of mild-sever fever as the dependent variable.

Results show that Women and Muslims in rural north India are more likely to not access healthcare, and if they do, consult with low quality unqualified outpatient healthcare providers. For fever durations of four or more days, men are more likely to access unqualified providers compared to women.

Results of the current study supports the literature that women’s utilisation of outpatient healthcare for communicable illnesses in LMICs is often less than men. A relative lack of access to household resources explains why fever duration parameter estimates for women and men differ.

URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199380

Courtesy: PLOS ONE


Social media as a gateway for young feminists: lessons from the #IWillGoOut campaign in India

Divya Titus.
Gender and Development, 26(2). 2018.

Over New Year’s Eve in 2016, a slew of sexual assault cases against women came to light in India’s tech hub of Bengaluru. Four years prior, against the backdrop of a violent rape in the nation’s capital of Delhi, prominent feminists and activists took to the streets as part of mass public protests calling for legal protections for women in India.

The response to the New Year’s Eve allegations, however, differed in two ways. The first was the conspicuous role social media played for the first time in the feminist movement in India. The second was the leadership provided by young feminists in the country. A coalition of various feminist organisations and individuals banded together to form a collective under the hashtag #IWillGoOut.

This article discusses feminist activism over a period of two weeks at the start of 2017, when the #IWillGoOut collective rapidly mobilised widespread public support calling for the safety of women and minorities in public spaces in India. The campaign organised and led marches and events in over 30 towns and cities of India with no formal fundraising effort.

I draw on my personal experience of organising the campaign to share insights into its success in transforming online support to offline action using social media. This experience provides a useful example that can be used in other social justice movements in the Indian subcontinent.

url – https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13552074.2018.1473224
courtesy – T&F

India in figures 2018

published by MOSPI. 2018.

1 Demographic Profile
2 Economic Development
3 Poverty Eradication and Social Protection
4 Infrastructure Development & Housing for all
5 Agricultural Development
6 Energy
7 Environment and Climate Change
8 Education for All
9 Health, Hygiene and Sanitation
10 Work and Employment
11 Millennium Development Goals

url – http://www.mospi.gov.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/India_in_figures-2018_rev.pdf
courtesy – MOSPI

To profit or not to profit? The case of state level public sector enterprises in India

Ritika Jain.
KEIO Economic Studies, 53. 2017.

Given the wide social ambit of state owned enterprises, operational inefficiencies may lead to forgoing profits. The current study examines profitability of state owned enterprises in India from 2007 to 2009 from a political economy perspective.

The paper finds that profitability of an enterprise is driven by how right wing the state (where the enterprise is located) is. Additionally, if the state where the enterprise is located is politically aligned with the Central government, the enterprise earns higher profit.

Finally, the effect of state subsidies on profits of enterprises reduces in the period just before state level elections.

url- http://koara.lib.keio.ac.jp/xoonips/modules/xoonips/detail.php?koara_id=AA00260492-20170000-0053
courtesy – KIEO

India Wage Report: Wage policies for decent work and inclusive growth

International Labour Organisation.

This report provides an overview of recent trends in wages, including wage gaps between different categories of workers, gender wage gaps, wages by sector and occupation, and trends in wage inequality. It analyses the existing market labour institutions and framework; particularly focussing on minimum wages and collective bargaining, and also suggests some policy-oriented recommendations.

URL: https://www.ilo.org/newdelhi/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_638305/lang–en/index.htm

Courtesy: ILO

Emerging Trends in India-Pakistan Trade

Nisha Taneja, Samridhi Bimal and Varsha Sivaram. 

ICRIER Working Paper 363. 2018.

Significant measures were undertaken by India and Pakistan to liberalize trade in 2012. In particular, Pakistan’s policy to permit all items to be imported from India except for a few items was expected to bring about a quantum increase in India’s exports.

Similarly, India’s efforts to address Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) were expected to lead to an increase in Pakistan’s exports to India. This study focuses on understanding whether there has been substantial increase in trade since 2012 and whether there has been a change in commodity composition of traded items.

It also examines whether new items have entered India’s export basket and assesses whether these items indicate a shift from informal to formal trade. The study identifies key trade policy reform measures undertaken by the two countries which are likely to impact India-Pakistan trade. These measures include regulatory duties imposed by
Pakistan and Goods and Service Tax (GST) adopted by India.

The key finding of the study is that there has been a limited impact of trade liberalization on the volume of trade between the two countries. The shift from positive list to negative list has not resulted in any major increase in new exports. The share of new commodities exports in total exports has showed a rise of only 9 percentage points between 2012-13 and 2016-17.

However, the trade basket has witnessed a diversification in terms of number of new items traded. The study finds that there is evidence of items shifting from informal to formal channels. The study also finds that the imposition of regulatory duties and compliance of standards has not affected India’s exports to Pakistan. The study concludes by making policy recommendations that could enhance and facilitate bilateral trade between India and Pakistan.

URL: http://icrier.org/pdf/Working_Paper_363.pdf

Courtesy: ICRIER

Investment Expenditure Behavior of Remittance Receiving Households: An Analysis Using Reserve Bank of India Data

Bharati Basu, and Irudaya Rajan.
Migration Letters, 15(3): 303-320. 2018. (Open Access).

Although it is the world’s largest recipient of remittances, India lacks information about the investment behavior of its remittance receiving households. Using data from Reserve Bank of India and the Tobit analysis, this paper examines how remittances, different household and migrant characteristics have affected both the propensity to invest and the amount of investment by the remittance receiving households.

The findings have significant implications for policy purposes. For example, government programs can create incentives for older migrants to have more remittance transfers. Remittance money used for children’s education could be matched to create robust flow of educational investments.

Full text: https://journal.tplondon.com/index.php/ml/article/viewFile/1171/711
Courtesy- Migration Letters