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To profit or not to profit? The case of state level public sector enterprises in India

Ritika Jain.
KEIO Economic Studies, 53. 2017.

Given the wide social ambit of state owned enterprises, operational inefficiencies may lead to forgoing profits. The current study examines profitability of state owned enterprises in India from 2007 to 2009 from a political economy perspective.

The paper finds that profitability of an enterprise is driven by how right wing the state (where the enterprise is located) is. Additionally, if the state where the enterprise is located is politically aligned with the Central government, the enterprise earns higher profit.

Finally, the effect of state subsidies on profits of enterprises reduces in the period just before state level elections.

url- http://koara.lib.keio.ac.jp/xoonips/modules/xoonips/detail.php?koara_id=AA00260492-20170000-0053
courtesy – KIEO

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India Wage Report: Wage policies for decent work and inclusive growth

International Labour Organisation.

This report provides an overview of recent trends in wages, including wage gaps between different categories of workers, gender wage gaps, wages by sector and occupation, and trends in wage inequality. It analyses the existing market labour institutions and framework; particularly focussing on minimum wages and collective bargaining, and also suggests some policy-oriented recommendations.

URL: https://www.ilo.org/newdelhi/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_638305/lang–en/index.htm

Courtesy: ILO

Emerging Trends in India-Pakistan Trade

Nisha Taneja, Samridhi Bimal and Varsha Sivaram. 

ICRIER Working Paper 363. 2018.

Significant measures were undertaken by India and Pakistan to liberalize trade in 2012. In particular, Pakistan’s policy to permit all items to be imported from India except for a few items was expected to bring about a quantum increase in India’s exports.

Similarly, India’s efforts to address Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) were expected to lead to an increase in Pakistan’s exports to India. This study focuses on understanding whether there has been substantial increase in trade since 2012 and whether there has been a change in commodity composition of traded items.

It also examines whether new items have entered India’s export basket and assesses whether these items indicate a shift from informal to formal trade. The study identifies key trade policy reform measures undertaken by the two countries which are likely to impact India-Pakistan trade. These measures include regulatory duties imposed by
Pakistan and Goods and Service Tax (GST) adopted by India.

The key finding of the study is that there has been a limited impact of trade liberalization on the volume of trade between the two countries. The shift from positive list to negative list has not resulted in any major increase in new exports. The share of new commodities exports in total exports has showed a rise of only 9 percentage points between 2012-13 and 2016-17.

However, the trade basket has witnessed a diversification in terms of number of new items traded. The study finds that there is evidence of items shifting from informal to formal channels. The study also finds that the imposition of regulatory duties and compliance of standards has not affected India’s exports to Pakistan. The study concludes by making policy recommendations that could enhance and facilitate bilateral trade between India and Pakistan.

URL: http://icrier.org/pdf/Working_Paper_363.pdf

Courtesy: ICRIER

Investment Expenditure Behavior of Remittance Receiving Households: An Analysis Using Reserve Bank of India Data

Bharati Basu, and Irudaya Rajan.
Migration Letters, 15(3): 303-320. 2018. (Open Access).

Although it is the world’s largest recipient of remittances, India lacks information about the investment behavior of its remittance receiving households. Using data from Reserve Bank of India and the Tobit analysis, this paper examines how remittances, different household and migrant characteristics have affected both the propensity to invest and the amount of investment by the remittance receiving households.

The findings have significant implications for policy purposes. For example, government programs can create incentives for older migrants to have more remittance transfers. Remittance money used for children’s education could be matched to create robust flow of educational investments.

Full text: https://journal.tplondon.com/index.php/ml/article/viewFile/1171/711
Courtesy- Migration Letters

Planning a ‘slum free’ Trivandrum: Housing upgrade and the rescaling of urban governance in India

Glyn Williams, Umesh Omanakuttan, J. Devika, and N. Jagajeevan. 2018.
Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space (Open Access)

Abstract:
This paper examines how India’s national urban development agenda is reshaping relationships between national, State and city-level governments. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, the flagship programme that heralded a new era of urban investment in India, contained a range of key governance aspirations: linking the analysis of urban poverty to city-level planning, developing holistic housing solutions for the urban poor, and above all empowering Urban Local Bodies to re-balance relationships between State and city-level governments in favour of the latter.

Here, we trace Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission’s implementation in Kerala’s capital city, Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram), where the city’s decentralised urban governance structure and use of ‘pro-poor’ institutions to implement housing upgrade programmes could have made it an exemplar of success. In practice, Trivandrum’s ‘city visioning’ exercises and the housing projects it has undertaken have fallen short of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission’s lofty goals.

The contradictions between empowering cities and retaining centralised control embedded within this national programme, and the unintended city-level consequences of striving for Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission funding success, have reshaped urban governance in ways not envisaged within policy. As a result, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission has been important in rescaling governance relationships through three interlinked dynamics of problem framing, technologies of governance and the scalar strategy of driving reform ‘from above’ that together have ensured the national state’s continued influence over the practices of urban governance in India.

url – http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2399654418784305
courtesy – Sage

Children in India – 2018 : A Statistical appraisal

Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, India. 2018.

This publication presents and analyses the statistics on the conditions of children on several broad indicators. The publications also provides useful information on Constitutional and legal provisions for children and child oriented policies and programmes.

url – http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/Children_in_India_2018_A_Statistical_Appraisal.pdf
courtesy -MOSPI

Dimensions of India’s Economy as seen through the Economic Survey 2017-18 and the Union Budget 2018-19

Manmohan Agarwal, Sunandan Ghosh, M Parameswaran, Ritika Jain, P Seenath, Hrushikesh Mallick, Vinoj Abraham, Udaya S Mishra, Sunil Mani, and P L Beena

Centre for Development Studies Commentary of India’s Economy and Society Series – 1, 2018.

Contents
Introduction
1 State of the Economy – Manmohan Agarwal
2 External Sector – Sunandan Ghosh
3 Slowdown in Investment – M Parameswaran
4 Ease of Doing Business – Ritika Jain
5 Agriculture Sector – P Seenath
6 Government Finance and Macro Economy – Hrushikesh Mallick
7 Employment, Job Creation & Labour Market – Vinoj Abraham
8 Social Infrastructure and Human Development – Udaya S Mishra
9 Science and Technology – Sunil Mani
10 Concerns on MSMEs, FDI and Trade – P L Beena

URL – http://cds.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Ecconomy1.pdf
Courtesy – CDS