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Women entrepreneurship: research review and future directions

  • Vanita Yadav and Jeemol Unni
  • Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, December 2016
  • Studies on women entrepreneurship have witnessed a rapid growth over the past 30 years. The field is in an adolescence stage with a considerable number of journal articles, literature reviews and books being published on women entrepreneurs. The objective of this study is twofold. First is to examine the number of papers published on women entrepreneurship in 12 established entrepreneurship journals from 1900 to 2016. Second is to assess the growth of the field by specifically reviewing literature reviews published from 1980s till 2016 and put forward future research directions. Our review findings suggest that there is still a long way to go in terms of building a strong theoretical base for research on women entrepreneurship. The lens of feminist theories can be applied in conjunction with the existing entrepreneurship theories to advance the field. Methodologically, past research is dominated by the positivist paradigm and there is a need to embrace innovative methods to build explanations using a constructionist approach. Further, studies are mostly restricted within national boundaries primarily being conducted in developed economies. There is a need to build transnational networks and foster professional communities to enable the growth of the field.
  • URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs40497-016-0055-x
  • Courtesy: Springer

Energy consumption, financial development and economic growth in India: New evidence from a nonlinear and asymmetric analysis

  • Muhammad Shahbaz, Thi Hong Van Hoang Mantu Kumar Mahalik and David Roubaud
  • This paper investigates the asymmetric relationship between energy consumption and economic growth by incorporating financial development, capital and labour into a production function covering the Indian economy from 1960Q1–2015Q4. The nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach is applied to examine the asymmetric cointegration between the variables. An asymmetric causality test is also employed to examine the causal association between the considered variables. The results indicate cointegration between the variables in the presence of asymmetries. The asymmetric causality results show that only negative shocks to energy consumption have impacts on economic growth. In the same vein, only negative shocks to financial development have impacts on economic growth. By contrast, symmetrically, capital formation causes economic growth. Finally, over the study period, a neutral effect exists between the labour force and economic growth in India. The implications of these results for growth policies in India are also discussed.
  • URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140988317300336
  • Courtesy: Sciencedirect

Trade, Financial Flows and Stock Market Interdependence: Evidence from Asian Markets

Sowmya Dhanaraj, Arun Kumar Gopalaswamy and M. Suresh Babu

MSE WORKING PAPER 158/2017

Liberalization and globalization of Newly Industrialized Economies have contributed to increased integration of capital markets. This study tests whether convergence of macroeconomic variables and enhanced bilateral trade and financial flows causes greater interdependence of markets.Daily closing indices and quarterly differentials in interest, inflation,
growth rates, exchange rates, trade of goods and services, direct and portfolio investment were used. Results revealed that markets of Asia arenot immune to shocks originating in US although co-movements of macroeconomic variables do not help in explaining level of interdependence. Portfolio flows were found to be important than tradeflows in explaining market interdependence.

URL: http://www.mse.ac.in/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Working-Paper-158-.pdf

Courtesy: MSE

Nursing Education in India: Changing Facets and Emerging Trends

Sreelekha Nair and S Irudaya Rajan
Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 52, Issue No. 24, 17 Jun, 2017

This article explores the history of nursing education in India, and the state, community and market factors contributing to its recent growth. The quality of training offered in these mushrooming institutions, however, tends to be poor. Regularisation and standardisation remain the greatest challenges for Indian nursing. Graduating nurses face job shortages and poor working conditions, especially in the private sector. Understanding the nursing education sector is important in the aftermath of the central government’s mandate to increase the wages of nurses in private hospitals.

url – http://www.epw.in/journal/2017/24/perspectives/nursing-education-india.html
courtesy – EPW

Why Do Some Oil-Rich Countries Perform Better Than Others?

Farrukh Iqbal and Youssouf Kiendrebeogo

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 8066

Progress in child mortality reduction and education attainment varies widely among oil-rich countries. This paper investigates the causes of this variation using an empirical model that departs from the available literature in allowing for explicit measurement of the impact of initial levels of child mortality and education attainment. The results show that the following four variables are statistically significant and robust across various specifications: public spending on health and education, economic growth rates, caloric sufficiency, and initial levels of child mortality and education attainment. Further analysis was conducted to determine the economic significance of these factors by examining the contribution of each to the fitted growth rates (as a deviation from the sample mean) of child mortality and secondary school enrollment for 14 oil-rich developing countries. The analysis reveals some interesting patterns. First, initial conditions dominate the results for education attainment: the initial level of secondary school enrollment in 1980 is the dominant factor in explaining subsequent improvements in 10 of the 14 oil-rich developing countries for which calculations could be performed. Second, policy factors worked in different ways in different countries. A high degree of caloric sufficiency enabled countries in the Middle East and North Africa to reduce child mortality faster, while low levels of caloric sufficiency prevented African oil-rich countries, such as Angola and the Republic of Congo, from making progress. Third, levels of public spending were not economically critical for gains in school enrollment, although they were important in a few country cases for improvements in child mortality rates.

URL:https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26758

COURTESY:World Bank Group

Within-Family Inequalities in Human Capital Accumulation in India: Birth Order and Gender Effects

Heather Congdon Fors and Annika Lindskog

Working Papers in EconomicsNo 700

In this paper we investigate birth order and gender effects on the development of children’s human capital in India. We investigate both indicators of the child’s current stock of human capital and of investment into their continued human capital accumulation, distinguishing between time investments and pecuniary investment into school quality. Our results show that in India, birth order effects are mostly negative. More specifically, birth order effects are negative for indicators of children’s accumulated human capital stock and for indicators of pecuniary investments into school quality. These results are more in line with previous results from developed countries than from developing countries. However, for time investments, which are influenced by the opportunity cost of child time, birth order effects are positive. Gender aspects are also important. Girls are disadvantaged within families, and oldest son preferences can explain much of the within-household inequalities which we observe.

URL: http://swopec.hhs.se/gunwpe/abs/gunwpe0700.htm

Courtesy: SWOPEC

Global earnings inequality, 1970–2015

Olle Hammar and and Daniel Waldenström 

Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, Uppsala UniversityNo 2017:7

We estimate trends in global earnings dispersion across occupational groups using a new database covering 66 developed and developing countries between 1970 and 2015. Our main finding is that global earnings inequality has declined, primarily during the 2000s, when the global Gini coefficient dropped nearly 10 points and the earnings share of the world’s poorest half doubled. Decomposition analyses emphasize the role of income convergence between poor and rich countries and that earnings have become more similar within occupations in traded industries. Sensitivity checks show that the results are robust to varying real exchange rates, inequality measures and population definitions.

URL: http://swopec.hhs.se/uunewp/abs/uunewp2017_007.htm

Courtesy:SWOPEC

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