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The Global Competitiveness Report 2018

World Economic Forum, 2018.

Abstract

In the midst of rapid technological change, political polarization and a fragile economic recovery, it is critical that we define, assess and implement new pathways to growth and prosperity.The 2018 edition of the Global Competitiveness Report represents a milestone in the four-decade history of the series, with the introduction of the new Global Competitiveness Index 4.0.

The new index sheds light on an emerging set of drivers of productivity and long-term growth in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. It provides a much-needed compass for policy-makers and other stakeholders to help shape economic strategies and monitor progress.

URL: https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-competitveness-report-2018

Courtesy: World Economic Forum

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Positioning and pricing strategies in a market with switching costs and staying costs

Yuncheol Jeong, Masayoshi Maruyama.

Information Economics and Policy, 44. 2018.

We analyze positioning and pricing strategies in a two-period duopoly where consumers have heterogeneous switching costs and staying costs. In the second period, we show that firms offer discounts to new customers in a market where there are more inertial consumers with large switching costs, while firms offer discounts to past customers in a market where there are more variety-seeking consumers with large staying costs.

If in the second period of our model there exist both inertial consumers and variety-seeking consumers, horizontal product differentiation is minimized and both firms locate at the center of the Hotelling line market. Furthermore, when consumers are relatively sophisticated (forward-looking), behavior-based price discrimination (BBPD) hurts firms’ profits as shown in the previous literature.

However, when consumers are sufficiently naive (or myopic) and do not care much about the second period when making first-period decisions, we find that BBPD can be profitable.

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167624518300477#!

Courtesy: Sciencedirect

Extractive Industries: The Management of Resources as a Driver of Sustainable Development

Tony Addison, ed. and Alan R. Roe, ed.

UNU WIDER. 2018. (Open Access).

Abstract

This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations.

New initiatives recognize that resource wealth can provide a means, when properly used, for poorer nations to decisively break with poverty by diversifying economies and funding development spending. Extractive Industries: The Management of Resources as a Driver of Sustainable Development explores the challenges and opportunities facing developing countries in using oil, gas, and mining to achieve inclusive change.

While resource wealth can yield prosperity it can also, when mismanaged, cause acute social inequality, deep poverty, environmental damage, and political instability. There is a new determination to improve the benefits of extractive industries to their host countries, and to strengthen the sector’s governance. Extractive Industries provides a comprehensive contribution to what must be done in this sector to deliver development, protect often fragile environments from damage, enhance the rights of affected communities, and support climate change action.

It brings together international experts to offer ideas and recommendations in the main policy areas. With a breadth of collective insight and experience, it argues that more attention must be given to the development role of extractive industries, and looks to the future to explain how action on climate change will profoundly shape the sector’s prospects.

URL: https://www.wider.unu.edu/publication/extractive-industries

Courtesy: UNU-WIDER

Investment-Induced Displacement in Central India: A Study in Extractive Capitalism

Vinita Damodaran, Felix Padel.

Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 38(2). 2018.

India’s abundant natural resources are a key feature of its newfound status as an emerging market that attracts foreign investments. As the country’s output of metals and their ores increases, investments to secure deals over mineral deposits and manufacturing plants increase.

Apart from direct funding for new projects, new investments pay for a large increase in the deployment of security forces, multilayered briberization, and protection money that also funds Maoist outfits, in yet another unending war that is fundamentally a resource war around mineral and metal production—primarily steel and aluminum as well as coal and water.

In this article, Damodaran and Padel examine the mining operations in Central India where Vedanta Resources, a corporation that has become symbolic of neoliberal capitalism in India today, brings huge new foreign investments in to exploit India’s resources under the logic of emerging markets. About a quarter of postcolonial India’s scheduled tribe population has been displaced by development projects, often through foreign loans and investments.

URL: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/706683#back

Courtesy: ProjectMuse

Innovation in Indian Handloom Weaving

Annapurna Mamidipudi, and Wiebe E. Bijker.

Technology and Culture, 59(3), 2018.

Handloom weaving is the second most important livelihood in rural India after farming. Improving handloom technologies and practices thus will directly affect the lives of millions of Indians, and this is similar for many other communities in the global South and East.

By analyzing hand-loom weaving as a socio-technology, we will show how weaving communities are constantly innovating their technologies, designs, markets, and social organization—often without calling it innovation. This demonstration of innovation in handloom contradicts the received image of handloom as a pre-modern and traditional craft that is unsustainable in current societies and that one should strive to eliminate: by mechanization and/or by putting it into a museum.

URL: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/703139

Courtesy: Project Muse

User-driven innovation: scale development and validation

Blanka Tacer, Mitja Ruzzier & Tine Nagy.

Economic Research, 31(1). 2018. Open access.

In dynamic business environments entrepreneurs increasingly strive to customise new products/services to displayed and latent user needs. User-driven innovation (U.D.I.) aims to incorporate user needs by giving users an active role in the innovation process. Despite the growing interest of researchers in U.D.I., empirical evidence remains scarce, because of a lack of a psychometrically sound instrument to enhance insight into U.D.I.

This paper derives an integrative definition of U.D.I. from different U.D.I. research streams and proposes a model with three distinctive dimensions of U.D.I.: user involvement, searching feedback and design orientation. Three consecutive studies result in a 13-item U.D.I. scale with appropriate reliability, dimensionality, convergent and discriminant validity.

Pilot studies include researchers, entrepreneurs and practitioners. The main study comprises data of 357 S.M.E.s. The analyses confirm the multidimensionality of the proposed construct. This study contributes to existing research of U.D.I. in entrepreneurship by addressing the multidimensional nature of U.D.I. with a new research instrument. The proposed U.D.I. scale can be used in future investigations of U.D.I. The construct is informative also for practitioners in introducing U.D.I. to their companies.

url – https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1331677X.2018.1484784
courtesy – T&F

Values Practices and Identity Sustenance in Dual-identity Organizations

Prarthan B. Desai

Journal of Human Values, 23(1), 2017.

A dual identity organization refers to an organization having two, often mutually conflicting, self-referential definitions of ‘who we are’ as an organization (Albert & Whetten, 1985). Values practices are defined as ‘the sayings and doings in organizations that articulate and accomplish what is normatively right or wrong, good or bad, for its own sake’ (Gehman, Trevino, & Garud, 2013, p. 84). In this paper, I study influence of values practices on sustenance of an organizational identity in dual-identity organizations.

I adopted a qualitative approach and single case study method for providing a rich narrative of the phenomenon. I collected data from an Indian software organization involved in both software services and software products businesses.

The case data show that values practices manifested inside dual-identity organizations in the form of comparisons of the two identities by internal audiences. The study identifies three types of distinct, but interrelated, values practices: (1) values infusion, (2) collective perceptions of pragmatic alignment and (3) collective expectations of equality and equity. The case data show that ineffective management of these values practices was detrimental to the sustenance of an organizational identity that failed to perform well on conventional performance parameters.