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Rising Sino-U.S. Competition in Artificial Intelligence

Both China and the United States are international leaders in artificial intelligence (AI). Although there remains a significant gap between them in cutting-edge technologies, and they have adopted different methods of planning and implementation, both countries have been mobilizing national resources and formulating policies to promote AI development, so as to achieve a strategic advantage over the other, especially against the backdrop of ever more intense and complicated strategic competition between them in recent years. As an epitome of their changing relationship, Sino-U.S. competition in AI development is manifested in economic, political, security, technological and other fields. It is expected that artificial intelligence will become an even more important field of competition between China and the United States, and that the trends of AI development and competition will to some extent determine the future dynamics of their bilateral relations.
Courtesy: worldscientific

China’s Global and Civilizational Re-Balancing and India’s Options

B. R. Deepak

China and the World, 1(1). 2018.

As China unfolds a new economic and foreign policy with its neighbors by promoting the ‘Belt and Road’ initiative (BRI), the revival of the ‘Silk Route Spirit’ that integrated regions economically and culturally seems imminent. India and China were at the Centre of civilizational and global rebalancing during ancient times; can they come together yet again after the centuries of Western dominance?

The connectivity initiatives whether from China or India, no matter how grandiose or miniscule they are, could be considered parts of the globalization processes that would immensely benefit countries and regions? The symbiosis or metamorphosis of these processes is extremely important if the dividends of the globalization are to be achieved and shared.

I argue that the BRI which is a re-globalization drive from the orient needs to dock itself with other similar yet smaller processes initiated by other countries and regions for example the ‘Sagarmala’ and ‘Bharatmala’ of India; Eurasian Economic Union of Russia etc. The metamorphosis into each other’s initiative may lead the BRI to success. India, needs to be an insider rather than an outsider of this value chain.

It holds that the cooperation entails deeper integration among countries concerned, and will open vistas of opportunities in many diversified areas including trade, transport, tourism, as well as cooperation in traditional and non-tradition security.

URL: https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S2591729318500050

Courtesy: Worldscientific

Remittances for Collective Consumption and Social Status Compensation : Variations on Transnational Practices among Chinese International Migrants

International Migration Review, 52(1), 2018.

This paper focuses on a special type of remittances — monetary remittances sent by international migrants to their hometowns to build symbolic structures and cultural facilities for collective consumption. We develop an analytical framework to examine the motives behind migrants’ remitting behavior and the mechanisms for realizing their remitting objectives based on a comparative study of two emigrant groups from China.

We find that the sending of remittances for collective consumption serves as a unique mechanism for social status compensation. Such behavior is not only affected by migrants’ socioeconomic circumstances or government policies, but also by intersecting contextual and institutional factors at multiple levels transnationally.



Internalisation Theory and Outward Direct Investment by Emerging Market Multinationals

Peter J. Buckley.

Management International Review, 58(2). 2018.

The rise of multinational enterprises from emerging countries (EMNEs) poses an important test for theories of the multinational enterprise such as internalisation theory. It has been contended that new phenomena need new theory. This paper proposes that internalisation theory is appropriate to analyse EMNEs.

This paper examines four approaches to EMNEs—international investment strategies, domestic market imperfections, international corporate networks and domestic institutions—and three case studies—Chinese outward FDI, Indian foreign acquisitions and investment in tax havens—to show the enduring relevance and predictive power of internalisation theory.

This analysis encompasses many other approaches as special cases of internalisation theory. The use of internalisation theory to analyse EMNEs is to be commended, not only because of its theoretical inclusivity, but also because it has the ability to connect and to explain seemingly desperate phenomena.

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11575-017-0320-4

Courtesy: Springer

The End of Cheap Labor: Are Foreign Investors Leaving China?

Julian Donaubauer and Christian Dreger. (2018).

Asian Economic Papers17(2). 

China’s government has been promoting the shift toward a consumption-based economy in the past few years to arrive at a path of sustainable and socially inclusive growth. In this context, the explicit goal to significantly raise the percentage of wages in the national household income was an integral part of the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011–15). These changes in economic strategy are likely to affect the attractiveness of the country to foreign investors. In this paper, we raise the hypothesis that soaring relative wages negatively affect foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to China, and alter their distribution within China. In addition, low-wage countries in the Asian region might benefit from the changed direction of FDI inflows. We utilize fixed-effects panel models with spatial spillovers for Chinese provinces and developing ASEAN countries to provide strong and robust evidence that wage increases change the allocation of FDI within China. In addition, we show that the changes in China’s economic strategy improve the chances of its low-income neighbors to attract FDI.

URL: https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/asep_a_00611

Courtesy: MIT Press journals

Industry policy in Asia’s demographic giants: China, India and Indonesia compared

Tom Barnes

  The Economic and Labour Relations Review, Volume 28, Issue 2, June 2017

The experience of industry policy in the wider Asian region contrasts significantly with many of the neoliberal policy prescriptions prevalent in Australia today. Using the automotive industry as a comparative case study, this article compares industry policy in three demographic and geographic giants of the region: China, India and Indonesia. China’s dominant position has benefited from a highly ‘interventionist’ industry policy which places strict conditions on foreign carmakers in joint ventures. This policy has also influenced the emergence of a thriving domestic industry, with state-owned enterprises leading the way. While India has also emerged as a major auto producer, its industry policy has moved away from the joint venture model since the 1990s, with fully foreign-owned operations now playing a much bigger role. In contrast, Indonesia retains a version of the joint venture model while local industry is dominated by Japanese capital. The record of industry policy in these countries challenges the idea that more ‘liberal’ economic systems lead to stronger domestic industries or firms.

URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1035304616656562

Courtesy: Sage

The Sino-Indian border issue as a factor for the development of bilateral relations

Albina Muratbekova

Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, 2018, Vol. 3(1)

The border issue between China and India has been prominent since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. Depending on time, an internal and external situation has changed, hence the value of disputed territory also shifted. This article shows the development of the border issue, recent rapprochements, and steps taken to settle the issue.

URL: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2057891117690453

Courtesy: Sage