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Determinants of internal migrant health and the healthy migrant effect in South India: a mixed methods study

  • Warren Dodd, Sally Humphries, Kirit Patel, Shannon Majowicz, Matthew Little, Cate Dewey
  • BMC International Health and Human Rights, 
  • Abstract
  • Background

    Internal labour migration is an important and necessary livelihood strategy for millions of individuals and households in India. However, the precarious position of migrant workers within Indian society may have consequences for the health of these individuals. Previous research on the connections between health and labour mobility within India have primarily focused on the negative health outcomes associated with this practice. Thus, there is a need to better identify the determinants of internal migrant health and how these determinants shape migrant health outcomes.


    An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in 26 villages in the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu. Sixty-six semi-structured interviews were completed using snowball sampling, followed by 300 household surveys using multi-stage random sampling. For qualitative data, an analysis of themes and content was completed. For quantitative data, information on current participation in internal labour migration, in addition to self-reported morbidity and determinants of internal migrant health, was collected. Morbidity categories were compared between migrant and non-migrant adults (age 14–65 years) using a Fisher’s exact test.


    Of the 300 households surveyed, 137 households (45.7%) had at least one current migrant member, with 205 migrant and 1012 non-migrant adults (age 14–65 years) included in this study.

    The health profile of migrant and non-migrants was similar in this setting, with 53 migrants (25.9%) currently suffering from a health problem compared to 273 non-migrants (27.0%). Migrant households identified both occupational and livelihood factors that contributed to changes in the health of their migrant members. These determinants of internal migrant health were corroborated and further expanded on through the semi-structured interviews.


    Internal labour migration in and of itself is not a determinant of health, as participation in labour mobility can contribute to an improvement in health, a decline in health, or no change in health among migrant workers. Targeted public health interventions should focus on addressing the determinants of internal migrant health to enhance the contributions these individuals can make to their households and villages of origin.

    URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12914-017-0132-4

    Courtesy: Springer


Comparing mission statements of social enterprises and corporate enterprises in the new and renewable energy sector of India: a computer aided content analysis study

  • Subhanjan Sengupta Arunaditya Sahay
  • Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 
  • This paper aims to explore how differently corporate enterprises and social enterprises strategically position themselves through their mission statements. The most notable distinctions between the mission statements of both groups exist in the degree of action orientation, endorsements of people/groups, and the highlights of positive entailment. The new and renewable energy sector is playing a key role in the emergence of India as an environmentally conscious emerging economy. The enterprises instrumental in this change are both social and corporate enterprises. While technology is important, a key factor to success is strategic approach. The vision and mission statements are strategically crafted by organizations to position themselves in the industry. This motivated the authors to carry out a comparative analysis of the mission statements of social and corporate enterprises to learn about the existing differences. Efforts were employed to quantify the narrative style and tonality of mission statements by applying DICTION software. This process generated values for the ‘master variables’ and ‘calculated variables’ in mission statements. Content analysis revealed that while a significant number of enterprises scored zero for the calculated variable ‘insistence’, only a few had scores within range. Most enterprises scored considerably well in the master variable ‘activity’. In ‘optimism’ social and corporate enterprises show some noticeable differences in their purpose, which reflect how different these organizations are. This content analysis succeeds in reflecting where the social and corporate enterprises in India’s renewable energy sector differ in their strategic intent. While in renewable energy social enterprises there is a domination of reference to beneficiaries/communities in their mission statements, and the positive entailments in terms of social change; renewable energy corporate enterprises seem to have a stronger intent to focus on issues related to technology, innovation, efficiency, and cost-leadership. Thus, this paper not only adds to establishing the fact that mission statements do play an important role in reflecting the strategic purpose of the organization, but adds to the arguments on the difference between social and commercial entrepreneurship.
  • URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40497-017-0079-x
  • Courtesy: Springer

Will Skill-Based Immigration Policies Lead to Lower Remittances? An Analysis of the Relations between Education, Sponsorship, and Remittances

Sankar Mukhopadhyay, Miaomiao Zou

IZA Discussion Paper No. 11330, February 2018

As more and more developed countries adopt policies that favor highly educated immigrants, the impact of such policies on developing countries remains unclear. Some researchers have argued that migrants who are more educated tend to bring their immediate family members to the host country, and thus, send less money to the source country in remittances. While there is numerous papers documenting association between education and remittance, whether that is related to sponsorship decision remains under-explored. Using individual level panel data from the New Immigrant Survey, we show that sponsoring family members leads to lower remittance. Furthermore, we show that college educated immigrants from high-income families are less likely to sponsor relatives, presumably because of relatively higher opportunity cost of migration of their relatives. Together, these two results suggest a positive association between education and remittances, which is indeed, what we find in the data. Our extended analysis shows that alternative explanations (such as higher income of more educated immigrants, or repaying implicit educational loans) cannot completely explain the positive association between education and remittances. Our results suggest that skill-based immigration policies are likely to result in more remittances.

URL: https://www.iza.org/publications/dp

Courtesy: IZA

The Indian Economic Journal, Volume 64, Issue 1-4, March–December 2016


Note from Editors by 

Performance of India’s States on the Millennium Development Goals:Identification of Key Drivers of Inter-state Variations by 
Macroeconomic Effects of Capital Account Liberalisation in India: An Empirical Analysis by 
An Analytical Enquiry into the Import Intensity of Indian Manufacturing Sector by 
Growth and Structure of Workforce in India: An Analysis of Census Data by 
Indo-US Bilateral Trade: An Empirical Analysis of India’s Trade Balance by 
Performance of Indian Manufacturing in International Economy: Interpreting the Data by 
Virtual and Print Newspaper Coexistence: The Analytical Study by 
Rapid Economic Growth in India:Technical Change in Agriculture, Irrigation and Food Security by 
Financial and Social Orientations of Microfinance Institutions in India by 
Markets or Hierarchies? Transaction Costs, Institutional Environment and the Foreign Collaboration Decision in India by 
An Examination of Interdependence between Revenue and Expenditure of Government of Haryana by 
Well-being and Conservation Implication of Forest Rights Act in the Protected Areas of Odisha, India by 
Rural Livelihood Diversity and its Impact on Livelihood Outcome: An Empirical Investigation from Jammu and Kashmir by 
Efficiency in Elementary Education in Urban India: An Exploratory Analysis Using DEA by

Merger mania: mergers and acquisitions in the generic drug sector from 1995 to 2016

  • Marc-André Gagnon, Karena D. Volesky
  • Globalization and Health, 
  • Abstract
  • Background

    Drug shortages and increasing generic drug prices are associated with low levels of competition. Mergers and acquisitions impact the level of competition. Record merger and acquisition activity was reported for the pharmaceutical sector in 2014/15, yet information on mergers and acquisitions in the generic drug sector are absent from the literature. This information is necessary to understand if and how such mergers and acquisitions can be a factor in drug shortages and increasing prices.


    Data on completed merger and acquisition deals that had a generic drug company being taken over (i.e. ‘target’) were extracted from Bloomberg Finance L.P. The number and announced value of deals are presented globally, for the United States, and globally excluding the United States annually from 1995 to 2016 in United States dollars.


    Generic drug companies comprised 9.3% of the value of all deals with pharmaceutical targets occurring from 1995 to 2016. Globally, in 1995 there were no deals, in 2014 there were 22 deals worth $1.86 billion, in 2015 there were 34 deals totalling $33.56 billion, and in 2016 there were 42 deals worth in excess of $44 billion. This substantial increase was partially attributed to Teva’s 2016 acquisition of Allergan’s generic drug business. The surge in mergers and acquisitions for 2015/16 was driven by deals in the United States, where they represented 89.7% of the dollar value of deals in those years.


    The recent blitz in mergers and acquisitions signals that the generic drug industry is undergoing a transformation, especially in the United States. This restructuring can negatively affect the level of competition that might impact prices and shortages for some products, emphasizing the importance of updating regulations and procurement policies.

    URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12992-017-0285-x

    Courtesy: Springer

Does equity in healthcare spending exist among Indian states? Explaining regional variations from national sample survey data

  • Rinshu Dwivedi and Jalandhar Pradhan
  • International Journal for Equity in Health, 
  • Abstract

  • Background

    Equity and justice in healthcare payment form an integral part of health policy and planning. In the majority of low and middle-income countries (LMICs), healthcare inequalities are further aggravated by Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE). This paper examines the pattern of health equity and regional disparities in healthcare spending among Indian states by applying Andersen’s behavioural model of healthcare utilization.


    The present study uses data from the 66th quinquennial round of Consumer Expenditure Survey, of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), conducted in 2009–10 by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Government of India (GoI). To measure equity and regional disparities in healthcare expenditure, states have been categorized under three heads on the basis of monthly OOPE i.e., Category A (OOPE > =INR 100); Category B (OOPE between INR 50 to 99) and Category C (OOPE < INR 50). Multiple Generalised Linear Regression Model (GLRM) has been employed to explore the effect of various socio-economic covariates on the level of OOPE.


    The gap in the ratio of average healthcare spending between the poorest and richest households was maximum in Category A states (richest/poorest = 14.60), followed by Category B(richest/poorest 11.70) and Category C (richest/poorest 11.40). Results also indicate geographical concentration of lower level healthcare spending among Indian states (e.g., Odisha, Chhattisgarh and all the north-eastern states). Results from the multivariate analysis suggest that people residing in urban areas, having higher economic status, belonging to non-Muslim communities, non-Scheduled Tribes (STs), and non-poor households spend more on healthcare than their counterparts.


    In spite of various efforts by the government to reduce the burden of healthcare spending, widespread inequalities in healthcare expenditure are prevalent. Households with high healthcare needs (SCs/STs, and the poor) are in a more disadvantaged position in terms of spending on health care. It has also been observed that spending on healthcare was comparatively lower among backward or isolated states. No doubt, the overall social security measures should be enhanced, but at the same time, looking at the regional differences, more priority should be assigned to the disadvantaged states to reduce the burden of OOPE. It is proposed that there is need to increase government spending, especially for the disadvantaged states and population, to minimise the burden of OOPE.

    URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12939-017-0517-y/fulltext.html

    Courtesy: Springer

Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol. 59 Issue 3 – Sep 2016


Exporters, Importers and Employment: Firm-Level Evidence from Africa. by Duda-Nyczak, Marta; Viegelahn, Christian

Situating Labour in the Global Production Network Debate: As if the ‘South’ Mattered. by Das, Keshab

7.5 Crore Green Jobs? Assessing the Greenness of MGNREGA Work by Bhaskar, Anjor; Shah, Amod; Gupta, Sunil