Economics& Politics, Volume 30, Issue 3, November 2018
How does foreign direct investment (FDI) affect the wellbeing of the poor? We address this question by analyzing the impacts of FDI on access to potable water. We predict that higher levels of greenfield FDI in water‐intensive sectors slow the rate of access to potable water in developing countries, with these adverse effects conditional on subnational politics. We hypothesize that this is more likely to occur in polities marked by relatively large poor and marginalized populations, where regulatory capture is more likely to occur. To test our intuition, we analyze subnational data on greenfield FDI in India, confirming that multinational investment in “thirsty” manufacturing sectors are negatively associated with improvements in potable water access. We then present a controlled comparison case study of two Indian states, Kerala and Rajasthan, highlighting the political mechanisms conditioning FDI’s effects on potable water.
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This paper seeks to address emerging debates and controversies on the impact of robots and artificial intelligence on the world of work. Longer term discussions of technological ‘singularity’ are considered alongside the socio‐technical and economic constraints on the application of robotics and AI. Evidence of robot ‘take‐up’ is gathered from reports of the International Federation of Robotics and from case vignettes reported elsewhere. In assessing the contemporary relationship between singularity, robotics and AI, the article reflects briefly on the two ‘tests’ of artificial ‘intelligence’ proposed by the pioneer computer scientist Alan Turing, and comments on the efficacy of his ‘tests’ in contemporary applications. The paper continues by examining aspects of public policy and concludes that technological singularity is far from imminent.
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This article shows how the increase of information availability due to new technologies positively affects aggregate entrepreneurship in national economies. We rely on an “occupational choice” model of managerial production, extended to include the managerial use of information, to explain variations in the number of entrepreneurs, and thus of firms, as measured by the aggregate new business creation data. We present evidence that supports such a theory of industrial organization dynamics for a sample of 78 economies over the period 2004–2012 using panel data instrumental variable regressions.
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Rajesh Chandwani, Saneesh Edacherian, and Mukesh Sud.
IIMA W.P. No. 2019-02-01.
Patient-centric digital infrastructure can potentially enhance the efficiency of the healthcare systems. Even in developed nations evidence suggests low adoption rates for such infrastructure. The Indian government, piggybacking off biometric identity, is setting up digital infrastructure to enable the provision of universal healthcare.
Invoking an information ecology perspective, we investigate the physician’s perception to this initiative. We find that, equipped with a unique patient identifier and stakeholders’ registry, this initiative is perceived to be a game changer and could significantly impact the power dynamics in the healthcare sector. Physicians, who are the key stakeholders in this initiative, are skeptical about the change in the locus of the power, with power residing in ‘data’ rather than ‘professional expertise’.
The changes are expected to manifest through monitoring, controlling and managing the data rather than the provision of knowledge-based services. We present recommendations for the design and implementation of this large-scale patient-centric digital infrastructure.
Do farmers value rice varieties tolerant to droughts and floods? Evidence from a discrete choice experiment in Odisha, India
Anchal Arora, Sangeeta Bansal, Patrick S. Ward.
Water Resources and Economics 25, 2019.
Abiotic stresses such as droughts and floods significantly constrain rice production in India. New stress tolerant technologies have the potential to reduce yield variability and help insulate farmers from the risks posed by these hazards. Using discrete choice experiments conducted in rural Odisha, we estimate farmers’ valuation for drought-tolerant (DT) and submergence-tolerant (SubT) traits embodied in rice cultivars.
Our results demonstrate that farmers in both drought-prone as well as submergence prone regions value reduction in yield variability offered by new, stress-tolerant cultivars, and would generally be willing to pay a significant premium for these traits. While virtually all farmers perceive the threat of drought and are willing to pay for protection against drought risk, only farmers in flood-prone areas would be willing to pay for rice that can withstand being submerged for prolonged periods, suggesting the potential for market segmentation along geographical or ecological lines.