Economics & Politics, 30(1), 2018.
Informal economy involving unrecorded, unregistered, extra‐legal activities employs majority of the work force in the developing world. Such extra‐legal existence of informal production is facilitated through extortion by agents of political forces in power. Also, extortion activities themselves constitute an informal segment.
Full‐scale general equilibrium consequences of such institutions are rarely discussed in the literature. We develop a well‐specified general equilibrium model to explore the possible consequences of reform. Economic reform may have an expansionary effect on the number of extortionists. Depending on capital mobility and factor intensity assumptions informal output and informal wage may increase.
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Romain Espinosa, Claudine Desrieux, Marc Ferracci.
International Review of Law and Economics, 54, 2018.
In 2008, the French government enacted a reform that reduced the number of labor courts by one quarter. This led to significant changes in access to labor courts for many workers and employers who had to travel further to proceed with conflict litigation. We use this reform to evaluate how access to labor courts affects the labor market.
Our empirical approach mainly relies on regression-adjusted conditional differences-in-differences estimations. We find that cities that experienced an increase in the distance to their associated labor court suffered from a lower growth rate of job creation (−4 percentage points), job destruction (−4.6 pp) and firm creation (−6.3 pp) between 2007 and 2012 compared to unaffected cities.
We find opposite but insignificant effects for cities that experienced a fall in the distance to the labor court. These results emphasize the central role of labor courts for the good functioning of the labor market.
Peter Skott, Leopoldo Gómez-Ramírez.
Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 45. 2018.
Pervasive credit constraints have been seen as major sources of slow growth in developing economies. This paper clarifies a mechanism through which an inefficient financial system can reduce productivity growth. Using a two-sector model, second, we examine the implications for employment and the distribution of income.
Both classical and Keynesian versions of the model are considered; saving decisions are central in the classical version while firms’ investment and pricing decisions take center stage in the Keynesian version. We find that, although boosting the asymptotic rate of growth, a relaxation of credit constraints may reduce the share of the formal sector, increase inequality and underemployment, and have little or no effect on the medium-run rate of growth.
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