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Life insurance holdings and well-being of surviving spouses

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Reform, informal sector, and extortion

Biswajit Mandal, Sugata Marjit, Hamid Beladi.

Economics & Politics, 30(1), 2018.

Informal economy involving unrecorded, unregistered, extra‐legal activities employs majority of the work force in the developing world. Such extra‐legal existence of informal production is facilitated through extortion by agents of political forces in power. Also, extortion activities themselves constitute an informal segment.

Full‐scale general equilibrium consequences of such institutions are rarely discussed in the literature. We develop a well‐specified general equilibrium model to explore the possible consequences of reform. Economic reform may have an expansionary effect on the number of extortionists. Depending on capital mobility and factor intensity assumptions informal output and informal wage may increase.

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ecpo.12099

Courtesy: Wiley online library

Prioritization of pollution potential zones for conservation activities of a lake system

Sheela A. Moses , Letha Janaki ,Sabu Joseph ,Justus Joseph, Jobin Thomas ,Pramod Lal
Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management, 21(3). 2016.
Many coastal lakes are under serious threats due to increased pressures associated with population growth, accelerated eutrophication, invasive species and toxic contamination. The extent of the pollution depends almost entirely on the characteristics and processes taking place in the lake basin.
The objective of this study was to identify the pollution potential zones (very high, high, medium and low) in the Akkulam–Veli (A–V) Lake Basin (Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala) using GIS‐enabled, multithematic overlay analysis. The primary characteristics considered were geomorphology, lithology, land use, soil, slope and population density.
The results of this study indicated the major portion of the lake basin exhibits very high or high pollution potential zones, with the drains passing through the very high pollution potential zone being mainly responsible for the contamination of the lake water. High population density, predominant commercial use and settlement with mixed tree crop, level and gentle slope (low slope) are the factors responsible for the very high pollution potential.
The organic pollutants in the lake system increase with the increased extent of the very high pollution potential area. This analysis approach will help authorities to identify the underlying causes of lake water quality degradation and plan and implement effective measures for protecting the lake. This process can also be utilized by scientists elsewhere to facilitate lake protection.
Courtesy: Wiley online library

Do welfare programs work in weak states? Why? Evidence from a maternity support program in India

Prabhat Ghosh, AnjiniKochar.

Journal of Development Economics, 134, 2018.

Weak states that lack administrative capacity are often unable to deliver welfare transfers within stipulated time periods, even when timely delivery is believed to be critical for the success of the program. This frequently generates large percentages of targeted households who report an absence of transfers in surveys conducted after the program was initiated.

The extent of the implementation failure is not always known to researchers, particularly in studies that base identification on policy rules and utilize national level data sets that lack implementation details. In such instances, any estimated positive effects of the program are commonly interpreted as indicative of the effect of the program through intended pathways on households that did receive timely payments.

With delayed payments, however, targeted outcomes may improve for reasons unrelated to intended pathways. In such cases, addressing the question of why programs affect outcomes is critical: Positive effects may reflect implementation failures and cannot be taken as indicative of the results that would obtain had the program been implemented as planned.

We illustrate this with reference to a pilot maternity benefit program implemented in India, utilizing data for the state of Bihar, a state known to suffer from a lack of administrative capacity. The program, the Indira Gandhi Matritya Sahayog Yojana (IGMSY), introduced in 2011 in 52 of India’s 640 districts,1 promised income support to all rural women in pilot districts who were pregnant subsequent to the start date with either their first or second child.

Recognizing the importance for child health of resource availability in the critical 9 month period encompassing the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 6 months of a child’s life, the program was intended to deliver support payments within this window.2

In Bihar, however, the implementation of the program was severely compromised by the state’s inability to deliver payments on time, despite arrangements for the direct deposit of payments into women’s bank accounts. At the time of our survey (2016), over 50% of eligible women were yet to receive any support and payments. Of eligible women, only 5% reported receiving the income support before the onset of their second pregnancy.

39% of payments intended for the first child arrived between the onset of the second pregnancy and 12 months after the birth of the second child, and hence closer to the critical period for the second child.

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/journal-of-development-economics/vol/134/suppl/C

Courtesy: Sciencedirect

Labor market and access to justice

Romain Espinosa, Claudine Desrieux, Marc Ferracci.

International Review of Law and Economics, 54, 2018.

In 2008, the French government enacted a reform that reduced the number of labor courts by one quarter. This led to significant changes in access to labor courts for many workers and employers who had to travel further to proceed with conflict litigation. We use this reform to evaluate how access to labor courts affects the labor market.

Our empirical approach mainly relies on regression-adjusted conditional differences-in-differences estimations. We find that cities that experienced an increase in the distance to their associated labor court suffered from a lower growth rate of job creation (−4 percentage points), job destruction (−4.6 pp) and firm creation (−6.3 pp) between 2007 and 2012 compared to unaffected cities.

We find opposite but insignificant effects for cities that experienced a fall in the distance to the labor court. These results emphasize the central role of labor courts for the good functioning of the labor market.

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014481881730042X

Courtesy: Sciencedirect

Credit constraints and economic growth in a dual economy

Peter Skott, Leopoldo Gómez-Ramírez.

Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 45. 2018.

Pervasive credit constraints have been seen as major sources of slow growth in developing economies. This paper clarifies a mechanism through which an inefficient financial system can reduce productivity growth. Using a two-sector model, second, we examine the implications for employment and the distribution of income.

Both classical and Keynesian versions of the model are considered; saving decisions are central in the classical version while firms’ investment and pricing decisions take center stage in the Keynesian version. We find that, although boosting the asymptotic rate of growth, a relaxation of credit constraints may reduce the share of the formal sector, increase inequality and underemployment, and have little or no effect on the medium-run rate of growth.

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0954349X17302102

Courtesy: Sciencedirect

World Development, Volume 110, October 2018

Articles

A decomposition method on employment and wage discrimination and its application in urban China (2002–2013) by Yiu Por (Vincent) Chen, Yuan Zhang

Corruption and averting AIDS deaths by Willa Friedman

Upgrading for whom? Relationship coffee, value chain interventions and rural development in Indonesia by Mark Vicol, Jeffrey Neilson, Diany Faila Sophia Hartatri, Peter Cooper

The impact of foreign remittances on poverty in Nepal: A panel study of household survey data, 1996–2011 by Udaya R. Wagle, Satis Devkota

Real exchange rate policies for economic development by Martin Guzman, Jose Antonio Ocampo, Joseph E. Stiglitz

The distributional effect of investment in early childhood nutrition: A panel quantile approach by Abraham Abebe Asfaw

Hybrid regulatory landscapes: The human right to water, variegated neoliberal water governance, and policy transfer in Cape Town, South Africa, and Accra, Ghana by Julian S. Yates, Leila M. Harris

A poverty dynamics approach to social stratification: The South African case by Simone Schotte, Rocco Zizzamia, Murray Leibbrandt

Why education is not helping the poor. Findings from Uganda by Simone Datzberger

From corn to popcorn? Urbanization and dietary change: Evidence from rural-urban migrants in Tanzania by Lara Cockx, Liesbeth Colen, Joachim De Weerdt

How do diffusion entrepreneurs spread policies? Insights from performance-based financing in Sub-Saharan Africa by Lara Gautier, Jale Tosun, Manuela De Allegri, Valéry Ridde

Earnings, savings, and job satisfaction in a labor-intensive export sector: Evidence from the cut flower industry in Ethiopia by Aya Suzuki, Yukichi Mano, Girum Abebe

Assessing the nonlinearity of the calorie-income relationship: An estimation strategy – With new insights on nutritional transition in Vietnam by Huong Trinh Thi, Michel Simioni, Christine Thomas-Agnan

Give a Man a Fishpond: Modeling the Impacts of Aquaculture in the Rural Economy by Mateusz Filipski, Ben Belton

Bloated bodies and broken bricks: Power, ecology, and inequality in the political economy of natural disaster recovery by Benjamin K. Sovacool, May Tan-Mullins, Wokje Abrahamse

Constitutional economics of Ghana’s decentralization by Emmanuel Frimpong Boamah

Does rural development aid reduce international migration? by Jonas Gamso, Farhod Yuldashev

The impact of armed conflict and terrorism on foreign aid: A sector-level analysis by Piotr Lis

Urban poverty across the spectrum of Vietnam’s towns and cities by P. Lanjouw, M.R. Marra

Can social groups impact schooling decisions? Evidence from castes in rural Senegal by Ababacar S. Gueye, Martine Audibert, Valérie Delaunay
Leader and villager behavior: Experimental evidence from Cameroon by Niccoló F. Meriggi, Erwin Bulte

Redistributing teachers using local transfers by Siddhant Agarwal, Athisii Kayina, Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay, Anugula N. Reddy

Climate, the Earth, and God – Entangled narratives of cultural and climatic change in the Peruvian Andes by Morgan Scoville-Simonds

Politicising inequality: The power of ideas by Alice Evans

Maternity protection in formal and informal economy workplaces: The case of Ghana by Bianca Stumbitz, Suzan Lewis, Abigail A. Kyei, Fergus Lyon

How women’s incumbency affects future elections: Evidence from a policy experiment in Lesotho by Amanda Clayton, Belinda Tang

Trade liberalization and child mortality: A Synthetic Control Method by Alessandro Olper, Daniele Curzi, Johan Swinnen

Metering water: Analyzing the concurrent pressures of conservation, sustainability, health impact, and equity in use by Maryann R. Cairns

Investing in land to change your risk exposure? Land transactions and inequality in a landslide prone region by Kewan Mertens, Liesbet Vranken

Women’s empowerment in East Africa: Development of a cross-country comparable measure by Stephanie Spaid Miedema, Regine Haardörfer, Amy Webb Girard, Kathryn M. Yount

Gender and multidimensional poverty in Nicaragua: An individual based approach by José Espinoza-Delgado, Stephan Klasen
Developmental Reviews
Effects of public policy on child labor: Current knowledge, gaps, and implications for program design by Ana C. Dammert, Jacobus de Hoop, Eric Mvukiyehe, Furio C. Rosati

Caste and development: Contemporary perspectives on a structure of discrimination and advantage by David Mosse

Special Section: Social Science Data and Development in Africa

Media exposure and political participation in a transitional African context by Jeffrey Conroy-Krutz

 

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/world-development/vol/110/suppl/C

Courtesy: Sciencedirect