Shareen Joshi, Nishtha Kochhar and Vijayendra Rao
WIDER Working Paper 132/2017
This paper examines the relationship between caste and gender inequality in three states in India.
When households are grouped using conventional, government-defined categories of caste we find patterns that are consistent with existing literature: lower-caste women are more likely to participate in the labour market, have greater decision-making autonomy within their households, and experience greater freedom of movement.
When households are grouped by the narrower sub-caste categories of jati, where caste is lived and experienced, we find that the relationships are far more varied and nuanced.
These results suggest that focusing on broad caste categories such as ‘scheduled castes’ and ‘scheduled tribes’ can be misleading for an understanding of the relationship between caste and gender, and for the targeting of anti-poverty programmes.
Changing phenotype and disease behaviour of chronic pancreatitis in India: evidence for gene–environment interactions
- Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics, Volume 1
- Review Article
- The idiopathic variety of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in India particularly in Kerala state was earlier called ‘tropical pancreatitis’ with peculiar features: early age of onset, severe malnutrition, diabetes and poor prognosis. A change in disease phenotype and behaviour has been observed recently.
To review the changing profile of CP in India and examine its relationship with environmental influences and socio-economic development.
Relevant studies on CP in India were reviewed along with social and economic parameters in Kerala over the past 4 decades.
There has been a definite change in the phenotype of CP in India with onset in mid twenties, better nutritional status, and a much better prognosis compared with the reports in 1970s. Genetic susceptibility due to genetic mutations particularly in SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC, and CLDN2/MORC4 genes is the most important factor and not malnutrition or dietary toxins for idiopathic CP suggesting the term ‘tropical pancreatitis’ is a misnomer. We observed a close relationship between socio-economic development and rising income in Kerala with late onset of disease, nutritional status, and better prognosis of CP.
Changing profile of CP in India and better understanding of risk factors provide evidence for gene–environmental interactions in its pathobiology.
- URL: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/global-health-epidemiology-and-genomics/volume/719F24A5D42E64A69E8700A209B9DC39
- Courtesy: Cambridge journals
- Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics, Volume 2 – 2017
- The study assessed: (1) the prevalence of exclusive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), exclusive use of modern medicine and combined use; (2) the factors associated with exclusive CAM use; and (3) the expenditure for CAM use among type-2 diabetes patients in rural Kerala. We surveyed 400 diabetes patients selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. Exclusive CAM use was reported by 9%, exclusive modern medicine by 61% and combined use by 30%. Patients without any co-morbidity were four times, those having regular income were three times and those who reported regular exercise were three times more likely to use exclusive CAM compared with their counterparts. Expense for medicines was not significantly different for CAM compared with modern medicine both in government and private sector. Patients with any co-morbidity were less likely to use CAM indicating that CAM use was limited to milder cases of diabetes.
- URL: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/global-health-epidemiology-and-genomics/latest-issue
- Courtesy: Cambridge journals
- Ageing & Society, Volume 37 – Issue 5 – May 2017
- Retirement is a major life transition which is associated in public discourses with reduced economic productivity and a raft of personal vulnerabilities. Consequently, governmental, health and employment sectors have promoted ‘active’ planning of affordable and ‘healthy’ retirements. This study presents a qualitative exploration of retirement transition and preparation experiences among 52 men and women from rural and urban areas of North East England, United Kingdom. The sample was diverse in terms of social class, income level, health status and type of work exit. Health, finance, social relationships and third-age opportunities were required resources for a good transition into retirement, and a degree of planning was required to mobilise these resources. However, the degree of choice and control around the transition to retirement was highly variable and socially structured. The notion of planning was embedded as a normative practice, particularly in relation to finances, but the practice of planning was highly contingent primarily due to personal circumstances (ill-health, bereavement, relationships) and work exit (redundancy, work stress, changes to shift patterns or hours). The findings offer insights into the reasons why many people do not plan and indicate that many of the assumptions associated with retirement planning warrant further consideration both theoretically and practically.
- URL: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/ageing-and-society/issue/119A485D576241E53D0F6D6C387F7C6B
- Courtesy: cambridge
Douglas Arent, Channing Arndt, Mackay Miller, Finn Tarp, Owen Zinaman
This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations.
The 21st Conference of the Parties (CoP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) shifted the nature of the political economy challenge associated with achieving a global emissions trajectory that is consistent with a stable climate. The shifts generated by CoP21 place country decision-making and country policies at centre stage. Under moderately optimistic assumptions concerning the vigour with which CoP21 objectives are pursued, nearly every country will attempt to design and implement the most promising and locally relevant policies for achieving their agreed contribution to global mitigation. These policies will vary dramatically across countries as they embark on an unprecedented era of policy experimentation in driving a clean energy transition.
This book steps into this new world of broad-scale and locally relevant policy experimentation. The chapters focus on the political economy of clean energy transition with an emphasis on specific issues encountered in both developed and developing countries. The authors contribute a broad diversity of experience drawn from all major regions of the world, representing a compendium of what has been learned from recent initiatives, mostly (but not exclusively) at country level, to reduce GHG emissions. As this new era of experimentation dawns, their contributions are both relevant and timely.
COURTESY: UNU WIDER