Employment Programmes for the Poor and Female Empowerment: The Effect of NREGS on Gender-based Violence in India
Sofia Amaral, Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay and Rudra Sensarma
Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics 27(2), 2015
The introduction of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in India increased employment opportunities for the poor and even more so for poor women. In this article, we analyze the relationship between female labour participation and violence against women. Using district–time variation in the implementation of this anti-poverty programme, we estimate the effect of improved participation and access to the employment of women on gender-based violence. We find evidence that increased female labour participation following the NREGS has increased total gender-based violence. There have been increases in kidnappings, sexual harassments and domesticviolence, while dowry deaths have decreased.