Rajendra P. Mamgain and Shivakar Tiwari
Giri Institute of Development Studies WP 215, March 2015
Using the NSSO Employment and Unemployment Survey Rounds as the basis, this paper examines questions of unemployment, employment and human capital formation among Indian youth belonging to various social and religious groups across different regions since the advent of the economic reforms in the early 1990s.The paper shows how an increasing proportion of the youth population is facing situations of high open unemployment during a period of high economic growth. The predominance of the poor quality of employment available to youths is also a major issue of concern, especially for youths belonging to the Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Muslim communities. Using the Logit Model, the paper shows how education, gender, social belonging and location play significant roles in determining the participation of youths in both the labour force and education. It also brings out disparities in the employment and human development outcomes of youths belonging to various socio-religious groups in a comparative framework. The paper argues for strengthening measures to create decent employment on a large scale and for improving the education and skill levels of youths with a greater focus on those belonging to the marginalised groups of Indian society.