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Disparities in Access to Basic Amenities across Caste, Ethnicity and Classes in Rural and Urban India

Arjun Kumar

Social Change and Development Vol. XII No.1, 2015

This paper examines the changes in access to basic amenities like drinking water, sanitation, electricity and drainage arrangement in Rural and Urban India using data sets from Census of India, 2001 and 2011 and National Sample Survey Housing Condition Round for 1993 and 2008/9; there is a special focus on disparities in access to basic amenities across caste and ethnic groups and consumption expenditure classes. With respect to all the indicators of basic amenities, an improvement in access by households was observed in proportion terms between 2001 and 2011 as per Census data and between 1993 and 2008/9 by NSS data, with acceleration during 2002 and 2008/9. However, Census data also showed an increase in the absolute number of deprived households in case of drinking water, latrine facility, and closed drainage connectivity for waste water outlet in the premise in both Rural and Urban India. Results highlight the need to take immediate action towards providing the access to basic amenities, giving special attention to rural India and bringing in inclusive policy measures (to reduce the increasing disparities in access to basic amenities) taking care of weaker sections (socio-economic) of society to raise the overall standard of life and well-being of the people.
Courtesy: OKD Institute
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