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Does greater autonomy among women provide the key to better child nutrition?

Wiji Arulampalam, Anjor Bhaskar and Nisha Srivastava

University of Warwick Wp No.269, Feb 2016

We examine the link between a mother’s autonomy – the freedom and ability to think, express, act and make decisions independently – and the nutritional status of her children. We design a novel statistical framework that accounts for cultural and traditional environment, to create a measure of maternal autonomy, a concept that has rarely been examined previously as a factor in children’s nutritional outcomes. Using data from the Third Round of the National Family Health Survey for India, supplemented with our qualitative survey, and accounting for “son preference” by limiting analysis to first-born children under 18 months of age, we document that maternal autonomy has a positive impact on the long-term nutritional status of rural children. We find that one standard deviation increase in maternal autonomy score (i) is
associated with a 10 percent reduction (representing 300,000 children) in the prevalence of stunting, and (ii) compensates for half of the estimated average decline in Height-for Age Zscores Indian children experience in the second six months of life. The findings underscore the importance of women’s empowerment in improving children’s nutrition during the critical first two years of life, a recognized “window of opportunity” for lifelong health and economic
benefits.

URL: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/research/centres/cage/manage/publications/269-2016_arulampalam.pdf

Courtesy: Warwick

Research Policy Volume 46, Issue 5, June 2017

Contents

University research and knowledge transfer: A dynamic view of ambidexterity in british universities by Abhijit Sengupta, Amit S. Ray

Rethinking the effect of risk aversion on the benefits of service innovations in public administration agencies by Nuttaneeya (Ann) Torugsa, Anthony Arundel

Gender effects in research evaluation by Tullio Jappelli, Carmela Anna Nappi, Roberto Torrini

Drivers of knowledge accumulation in electronic waste management: An analysis of publication data by Grazia Cecere, Arianna Martinelli

Does environmental regulation indirectly induce upstream innovation? New evidence from India by Pavel Chakraborty, Chirantan Chatterjee

Climbing the ladder of technological development by Sergio Petralia, Pierre-Alexandre Balland, Andrea Morrison

Manipulation of explicit reputation in innovation and knowledge exchange communities: The example of referencing in science by Michael A. Zaggl

The long-term effect of digital innovation on bank performance: An empirical study of SWIFT adoption in financial services by Susan V. Scott, John Van Reenen, Markos Zachariadis

Examination workloads, grant decision bias and examination quality of patent office by Yee Kyoung Kim, Jun Byoung Oh

Inside the virtuous circle between productivity, profitability, investment and corporate growth: An anatomy of Chinese industrialization by Xiaodan Yu, Giovanni Dosi, Marco Grazzi, Jiasu Lei

Making a marriage of materials: The role of gatekeepers and shepherds in the absorption of external knowledge and innovation performance by Anne L.J. Ter Wal, Paola Criscuolo, Ammon Salter

Chile’s Salmon Industry. Policy Challenges in Managing Public Goods, A. Hosono, M. Iiizuka, J. Katz (Eds.) by Roberta Rabellotti

The Entry of Randomized Assignment into the Social Sciences

Jamison, Julian C.
World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 8062

Although the concept of randomized assignment to control for extraneous factors reaches back hundreds of years, the first empirical use appears to have been in an 1835 trial of homeopathic medicine. Throughout the 19th century, there was primarily a growing awareness of the need for careful comparison groups, albeit often without the realization that randomization could be a particularly clean method to achieve that goal. In the second and more crucial phase of this history, four separate but related disciplines introduced randomized control trials within a few years of one another in the 1920s: agricultural science, clinical medicine, educational psychology, and social policy (specifically political science). Randomized control trials brought more rigor to fields that were in the process of expanding their purviews and focusing more on causal relationships. In the third phase, the 1950s through the 1970s saw a surge of interest in more applied randomized experiments in economics and elsewhere, in the lab and especially in the field.

URL:https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26754
courtesy: World Bank Group

Regional analysis of sanitation performance in India

Debasree Bose & Arijita Dutta

UNU-MERIT working papers #2017-023

Introduction: India bears a disproportionate burden of open defecation in spite of investing more and more funds and ushering in several institutional efforts including Swachh Bharat Mission in the recent past. A large share of rural households still lack basic sanitation facilities in India and members practice open defecation.

Objective: The study endeavours to examine the existing anomaly between meagre sanitation productivity and enhanced resource allocation in rural sanitation in India. The study attempts to develop an instrument to monitor the differential regional performances across India.

Methodology: The paper applied data exploration to identify spatial inequality and economic inequity across the nation. The extent of inequality and inequity are measured through appropriate measure statistical indices. To quantify the level of efficiency of the districts in translating social spending in to sanitation coverage and usage, non-parametric data envelopment technique (DEA) has been applied to identify best-in-class performers. Finally, a regional sanitation performance index that premises on three dimensions of performance: efficiency, equity and equality is introduced.

Findings: Efficiency analysis reveals huge potential of India to attain a far higher sanitation access and usage with the given flow of social spending. The study unfolds that India is suffering from dual burden of spatial inequality and economic inequity. While the regional divergence in sanitation access escalates, households from lower income group increasingly construct toilets in comparison to their higher income counterpart even within the same region, originating a paradox in sanitation in India.

Conclusion: The performance index has the potential to be served as an instrument to monitor and evaluate regional performances on sanitation and to inform investment decisions for targeted improvement. This index is expected to serve as a useful tool for policy watch as it clearly identifies the best and the worst performers by allowing fair comparison among them.

URL: http://www.merit.unu.edu/publications/working-papers/abstract/?id=7030

Courtesy: UNU-MERIT

Building America’s Skilled Technical Workforce

National Academies Press, 2017

Skilled technical occupations—defined as occupations that require a high level of knowledge in a technical domain but do not require a bachelor’s degree for entry—are a key component of the U.S. economy. In response to globalization and advances in science and technology, American firms are demanding workers with greater proficiency in literacy and numeracy, as well as strong interpersonal, technical, and problem-solving skills. However, employer surveys and industry and government reports have raised concerns that the nation may not have an adequate supply of skilled technical workers to achieve its competitiveness and economic growth objectives.

In response to the broader need for policy information and advice, Building America’s Skilled Technical Workforce examines the coverage, effectiveness, flexibility, and coordination of the policies and various programs that prepare Americans for skilled technical jobs. This report provides action-oriented recommendations for improving the American system of technical education, training, and certification.

read more here …
courtesy – NAP

The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration

Francine D. Blau and Christopher Mackie, Editors
National Academies Press, 2017

Description

The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration finds that the long-term impact of immigration on the wages and employment of native-born workers overall is very small, and that any negative impacts are most likely to be found for prior immigrants or native-born high school dropouts. First-generation immigrants are more costly to governments than are the native-born, but the second generation are among the strongest fiscal and economic contributors in the U.S. This report concludes that immigration has an overall positive impact on long-run economic growth in the U.S.

More than 40 million people living in the United States were born in other countries, and almost an equal number have at least one foreign-born parent. Together, the first generation (foreign-born) and second generation (children of the foreign-born) comprise almost one in four Americans. It comes as little surprise, then, that many U.S. residents view immigration as a major policy issue facing the nation. Not only does immigration affect the environment in which everyone lives, learns, and works, but it also interacts with nearly every policy area of concern, from jobs and the economy, education, and health care, to federal, state, and local government budgets.

The changing patterns of immigration and the evolving consequences for American society, institutions, and the economy continue to fuel public policy debate that plays out at the national, state, and local levels. The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration assesses the impact of dynamic immigration processes on economic and fiscal outcomes for the United States, a major destination of world population movements. This report will be a fundamental resource for policy makers and law makers at the federal, state, and local levels but extends to the general public, nongovernmental organizations, the business community, educational institutions, and the research community.

read more here …
courtesy – NAP

Spatial Industrial Diversification in India: An Analysis of Unorganised Manufacturing Enterprises

Dilip Saikia and Nivedita Goswami

Assam Economic Review, Vol. 10, 2017

Industrial diversification continues to be an important policy goal in regional planning, because of its direct positive effect on economic growth and stability. A large number of studies in India, carried out at different geographical scales namely, national level, states, and districts show that the industrial structure of India and its regions and states is characterised by high degree of specialisation rather than diversification. However, these studies are related to the organised (or registered) manufacturing sector only. Despite the fact that the unorganised manufacturing sector, also known as the informal manufacturing sector, is vast and diverse, and occupies an important role in India’s industrial sector, very few studies have attempted any systematic analysis of the structure of the unorganised enterprises, both at the national and regional levels. Therefore this paper aims to examine the industrial structure and the extent of diversification of unorganised manufacturing enterprises across the Indian states. Using data from the 51st (1994–95), 62nd (2005–06), and 67th (2010–11) “quinquennial” rounds the National Sample Survey on unorganised manufacturing enterprises, we have analysed the industrial structure of the states at two-digit industry level by employing location quotient technique, whereas the diversification coefficient has been employed to examine the degree of diversification of unorganised manufacturing enterprises in different states. We have also examined the relationship between diversification of unorganised manufacturing enterprises and level of industrial development across the states.

URL: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2920070

Courtesy: AER

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